The Ancient History is the period between the birth of writing and the fall of the Roman Empire in 476. It includes a very long period and also in the territorial extension, because it is based on the areas of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Greek and Hellenistic world to end up in the immense Roman Empire.
It can be characterized as the era of the birth of cities, social specialization, the birth of most of today's sciences and arts and a huge demographic expansion that led to the creation of great empires. It must not be forgotten that in the same dates a town can still live in prehistory (or protohistory) and another has evolved a lot. The most abundant political regime is the monarchy. Commerce arises as such, with the emergence of the currency and the great routes of exchange.
4th and 3rd millennium in Mesopotamia and Egypt
The history of the old Mesopotamia is documented from 10000 BC to 637 AD (Muslim conquest). The most important period is, however, that which goes from 3100 to 538 BC, during which it was the birthplace of three civilizations: Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian.
2nd Millennium BC in the Ancient Near East
The 2nd millennium BC in the Near East begins with the Middle Bronze Age and ends with the Late Bronze Age. The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylon. The alphabet develops. In the middle of the millennium, a new order emerges with the Minoan Greek domination of the Aegean Sea and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium saw the collapse of the Bronze Age and the transition to the Iron Age.
1st Millennium BC in the Ancient Near East
The First Millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age in the Ancient World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity.
The archaic period in Ancient Greece
The archaic era is a periodization of the history of Ancient Greece that distinguishes the stage where Hellas came out of the dark age and the features of the fully crystallized Greek civilization were formed in the later classical period.