Germany, officially Federal Republic of Germany, is a central European state that is part of the European Union. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark and the Baltic Sea; to the east with Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south with Austria and Switzerland and to the west with France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands.
The history of Germany as a modern nation state does not begin until 1871 with the creation of the German Empire (II Reich). Previously, the German territories were divided into a multitude of sovereign states of medieval origin, united under the Holy Roman Empire.
After the German defeat in the World War I and the dissolution of the Empire, the Revolution of November 1918 gave way to the proclamation of the democratic regime of the Republic of Weimar. The political, social and economic upheavals of the interwar period favoured the rise of fascism in Europe, and in Germany the coming to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933 led to the creation of the dictatorial regime of the Third Reich.
The Nazi regime, defeated in the World War II, opened a new political stage for a Germany under the control of the 4 allied powers that won the war: the Soviet Union, the United States of America, Great Britain and France. It was decided to divide the country into 4 areas of influence, but finally the country was divided into two countries within the framework of the Cold War:
The Revolution of November 1918 in Germany
The November Revolution of 1918 in Germany took place in the last moments of the First World War, between the months of November 1918 and March 1919.
Nazism: the rise to power in Germany
The rise to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany in 1933 opened a new stage dominated in Europe by totalitarian political regimes.
Revision of the Treaty of Versailles and the reopening of the war conflict in Europe
The coming to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany and the end of the period of economic prosperity of the 1920s opened the door to questioning the peace of Versailles.